By Massimo Morbidelli
On account that heterogeneous catalysis is accepted in chemical, refinery, and pollution-control methods, attaining optimum catalytic functionality is an important factor for chemical engineers and chemists. This ebook addresses the query of the way catalytic fabric may be disbursed inside of a porous aid to procure optimum functionality. It treats unmarried and a number of response structures, isothermal and nonisothermal stipulations, pellets, monoliths, fixed-bed reactors, and membrane reactors. the consequences of physicochemical and working parameters are analyzed to achieve perception into the underlying phenomena governing the functionality of optimally designed catalysts. all through, the authors supply a balanced remedy of thought and test and pressure difficulties of industrial value.
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Additional resources for Catalyst Design: Optimal Distribution of Catalyst in Pellets, Reactors, and Membranes (Cambridge Series in Chemical Engineering)
In all cases, the optimal distribution is an appropriately located Dirac-delta function. 26 Optimization of the Catalyst Distribution in a Single Pellet Parallel reactions: A1 → A2 , A1 → A3 For parallel reactions that follow power-law kinetics the optimal location of the Dirac-delta is at the surface of the pellet if the order of the desired reaction is higher than the order of the undesired one; in the opposite case it is at the center of the pellet. Egg-white distributions can be optimal for more complex kinetics.
124) where r is the reaction rate per unit weight of the catalyst pellet, and r is the speciﬁc reaction rate per unit surface area of active element. 22. Variation of rhodium dispersion with rhodium content for Rh/SiO2 catalyst. The catalysts were prepared by incipient-wetness impregnation with Rh(NO3 )3 . 123) with b = 42. , 1993). The aim is to identify the concentration proﬁle q(s) of active element within the support which, for a ﬁxed total amount, maximizes a given performance index of the catalyst pellet.
81) for optimality. 81), a ∗ (s) cannot be optimal. Therefore, in order for a ∗ (s) to be optimal, it has to be substantially nonzero only at the point s¯ where the corresponding G ∗ (s) is maximum, which means that a ∗ (s) must be a Dirac-delta function. 5). 3 The General Case of a Complex Reaction System 35 value Gm∗ for all values of s where a ∗ (s) is nonzero: G ∗ (s) = Gm∗ G ∗ (s) ≤ Gm∗ for for a ∗ (s) > 0 a ∗ (s) = 0. 81). 84). Therefore, in this particular case, the optimal distribution does not need to exhibit the shape of a Dirac delta function.
Catalyst Design: Optimal Distribution of Catalyst in Pellets, Reactors, and Membranes (Cambridge Series in Chemical Engineering) by Massimo Morbidelli