50 Big Ideas You Really Need to Know by Ben Dupre PDF

By Ben Dupre

ISBN-10: 1847249868

ISBN-13: 9781847249869

50 vast rules you actually need to understand is a concise, obtainable and renowned consultant to the significant tenets of Western proposal. each very important precept of philosophy, faith, politics, economics, the humanities and the sciences is profiled in a chain of brief illustrated essays, complemented by means of an informative array of timelines and field gains.
Platonism, The Soul, Communism, Aristotelianism, religion, Fascism, The Golden rule, Atheism, Racism, Altruism, Secularism, Feminism, Pluralism, Fundamentalism, Islamism, Liberty, Creationism, Capitalism, Toleration, warfare, Globalization, Scepticism, responsibility, Classicism, cause, Utopia, Romanticism, Punishment, Liberalism, Modernism, Materialism, Democracy, Surrealism, Relativism, Conservatism, Censorship, Utilitarianism, Imperialism, mammoth Bang, Existentialism, Nationalism, Chaos, Evil, Social agreement, Evolution, destiny, Republicanism, Relativity, Quantum mechanics, Gaia.

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In Kant’s view, beneath every action there is an underlying rule of conduct, or maxim. Such maxims can have the form of categorical imperatives, however, without qualifying as moral laws, because they fail to pass a test, which is itself a supreme or overarching form of categorical imperative and is clearly imbued with the spirit of the golden rule: Do as I say, not as I do The essence of the golden rule is moral consistency, and it is the flouting of this – not practising what you preach – that makes hypocrisy so obnoxious.

Nobody who believes in Darwinian evolution (and that includes virtually every biologist on the planet) would deny that humans are the products of evolutionary processes, so mechanisms such as kin selection offer explanations of how altruistic behaviour may have evolved in humans. The problem, of course, is that biological altruism of this kind is not ‘pure’ or ‘real’ altruism at all: it is a way of explaining behaviour that benefits others in terms of the agent’s (ultimate) self-interest – or at least in terms of its genes’ interest.

The problem of universals Plato’s theory of Forms may seem far-fetched, but one of the chief problems that it seeks to address – the so-called problem of universals – has been a dominant theme in philosophy, in some guise or other, ever since. In the Middle Ages the philosophical battle lines were drawn up between the Realists (or Platonists) on one side, who believed that universals such as redness and tallness existed independently of particular red and tall things; and the Nominalists on the other, who held that they were mere names or labels that were attached to objects to highlight particular similarities between them.

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50 Big Ideas You Really Need to Know by Ben Dupre

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