By Issam K. H. Halayqa
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Extra info for A comparative lexicon of Ugaritic and Canaanite
This provides a total pension from general and complementary schemes of around 70 per cent of average earnings; widow(er)s' pensions comprise 52 per cent of the deceased pensioner's entitlement. Pensions are adjusted twice a year in line with national average wages (OECD, 1988b). Pension funding reform has been under discussion for a decade (Walker, 1993). Since most over-60s receive an old age or survivor's pension or minimum vieillesse, the social assistance system plays a minor role. People aged over 65, or over 60 if unable to work, are entitled to apply for means-tested social assistance (aide sociale) administered by the departement and the commune's social welfare office (Centre Communal d'Action Sociale, CCAS), which provides help in cash and services; under the 'obligation alimentaire' families are in some cases responsible for contributing towards some categories of assistance to their older relatives (Glendinning and McLaughlin, 1993: 77-8).
In Germany the costs of 1990 unification also had far-reaching implications for the level of funding available for welfare services. The main issues addressed in the late 1980s and early 1990s concerning financing care for older people were: paying for pensions, health and social care, and developing the mixed economy of care. 2. This is of particular concern in Germany. Funding state pensions for this rising proportion of pensioners would entail large increases in contribution rates, reducing pension levels, or other solutions such as raising statutory retirement age or privatising pensions.
The reformed system was intended to make services more responsive to individual assessed needs and increase choice, and, in effect, to encourage 'substitution' of community for institutional care and informal for formal types of provision (Davies, 1991: 2). The United States of America is a prime example of the 'liberal' or 'residual' welfare state, relying on the market and family, with meanstested assistance as a last resort. In Jones' model (1985: 82) it is a 'low social spending' 'welfare capitalist' type.
A comparative lexicon of Ugaritic and Canaanite by Issam K. H. Halayqa