By Stuart Redman
This article takes a learner-centred and artistic method of vocabulary studying. It combines a teacher's publication, a student's e-book and a cassette. The student's ebook comprises the educating and revision devices, together with paintings for self-study.
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Extra resources for A Way with Words: Book 3 Student's book: Vocabulary Development Activities for Learners of English
The opposite of no, so it is supposed to be s´ı, so 11 across is gonna be mintieron (fills in mintieron)’ Noticing with metalinguistic awareness: ‘ . . now let’s see where is number 17 down? oh se durmieron, con a with a u . . repetir, ellos repitieron? I think it has a stem change, 25 down ir, ´ done cool, I like yes! . four down would be tu, so durmi o´ (writes in durmi o) this. Number 5 ellos of pedir, that asked, pidieron and it’s good . . nine is gonna be s´ı again mintieron and obviously I spelled number 11 wrong so I can fix that (changes mentieron to mintieron)’ This technique appears to have been successful in distinguishing between two levels of awareness (those who showed higher levels of awareness learned more than those whose protocols showed that they merely attended and noticed), but once again it is difficult to see how such techniques could show that subjects did not attend or notice something, since verbal reports (even when concurrent) cannot be assumed to include everything that is noticed (see Jourdenais, this volume, for further discussion).
Apparent complexity may come more from the problem than from the system which learns to solve it. Simon (1969) illustrated this by describing the path of an ant making its homeward journey on a pebbled beach. The path seems complicated. The ant probes, doubles back, circumnavigates and zigzags. But these actions are not deep and mysterious manifestations of intellectual power. Closer scrutiny reveals that the control decisions are both simple and few in number. An environment-driven problem solver often produces behaviour that is complex only because a complex environment drives it.
1996; O’Grady, 1997). Memory for language 37 Cairns, 1995; MacWhinney, this volume; McClelland, Rumelhart & Hinton, 1986), functional linguistics (Bates & MacWhinney, 1981; MacWhinney & Bates, 1989; see also Harrington and MacWhinney, this volume), emergentist approaches (Elman, Bates, Johnson, Karmiloff-Smith, Parisi, & Plunkett, 1996), and cognitive linguistics (Lakoff, 1987; Langacker, 1987), believe that as the study of language turns to consider ontogenetic acquisition processes, it favours a conclusion whereby the complexity of the final result stems from simple learning processes applied, over extended periods of practice in the learner’s lifespan, to the rich and complex problem space of language evidence.
A Way with Words: Book 3 Student's book: Vocabulary Development Activities for Learners of English by Stuart Redman