By Penelope M. Jenkin
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Additional resources for Animal Hormones. A Comparative Survey
This structure was originally called the "X-organ" and was identified in several species by Hanström (1939) and his pupils; but since then, many workers have used the name X-organ for the neurosecretory cell bodies located in the terminal medulla. T h e modified name of ganglionic-X-organ is here used for this latter group of cells, from which in fact axons run to both the sinus gland and to Hanstrom's organ (Knowles and Carlisle, 1956). Commissures and connectives Active extracts have been obtained from many other parts of the crustacean nervous system besides the supraoesophageal "brain"; but as yet there is little indication of where any natural hormones, corresponding in their actions to these extracts, may be released into the blood stream.
In all land animals the newly developed neural lobe of their neurohypophysis also acquires an independent arterial supply from the same source. These vessels from the neural lobe, together with all those from the pars distalis, drain into the same venous sinus and eventually join the internal jugular veins. Nerve axons to the pituitary fall into two distinct categories: those of neurosecretory cells, and those of sympathetic nerves. The neurosecretory cells are confined to the neurohypophysis, and most of them end in the neural lobe; but some of them make contact with the primary venous plexus in the median eminence.
From Young, 1936). 112 Neurosecretory systems of Crustacea There are four neurosecretory systems in crustaceans. Two of these have their nucleated cell bodies in the brain and in the optic 24 SOURCES OF KINETIC AND METABOLIC HORMONES lobes; the ends of their secreting axons are aggregated into distinct storage-and-release organs, known as the sinus gland and Hanstrom's sensory pore organ respectively. A third group of neurosecretory cell bodies has been found in (a) FIG. 2-5. 223); but the natural point of release for their secretions into the blood stream is uncertain.
Animal Hormones. A Comparative Survey by Penelope M. Jenkin