By Gary Buck
The publication outlines the foremost parts of listening learn in an available demeanour and offers language lecturers with directions to layout and boost compatible listening checks for his or her scholars.
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Extra info for Assessing Listening (Cambridge Language Assessment)
E. ), the concept that Gramsci used to analyse the class nature of the state in capitalism. The ideational plays a particularly strong role in cementing the subjective unity of the historic bloc through the articulation of political convictions and programmes. Does this mean that there is no relation at all between the sphere of politics and the sphere of ‘economics’, as it is usually but mistakenly called? By no means. In modern politics in capitalist societies, private and fractional interests tend to coagulate around largely implicit, but no less definite, common programs, or comprehensive concepts of control.
Indeed, the employment of undocumented foreign labour has in many cases become a condition for the continued existence of small and medium-sized firms, creating a substantial economic interest in continued (illegal) immigration (Brochmann 1993: 119–120; also Papademetriou 1994: 27). Finally, the economic and political crisis of the state in many Third World countries and the resulting intensification of social and ethnic conflicts swell the ranks of international refugee movements and drive up the outward flow of migrant workers.
It matters because labour power is a fictitious commodity (Polanyi 1957; de Brunhoff 1968). In other words, although it is bought and sold in labour markets and may add value in production, it is not itself directly (re)produced in and by capitalist firms with a view to private profit. Instead, labour power enters the market economy from outside and is embodied in individuals who have other identities than that of bearers of labour power. This poses economic problems as regards its individual and collective suitability to capital’s needs and its own survival in the absence of a secure income or other assets; social problems regarding social inclusion and cohesion; and political problems regarding the legitimacy of state intervention in this area and its relation to other identities that workers may have.
Assessing Listening (Cambridge Language Assessment) by Gary Buck