By John E.J. Schmitz
This monograph condenses the suitable and pertinent literature on blanket and selective CVD of tungsten (W) right into a unmarried achievable quantity. The publication offers the reader with the mandatory history to raise, high-quality song, and effectively preserve a CVD-W method in a creation set-up. fabrics deposition chemistry, apparatus, strategy know-how, advancements, and purposes are defined.
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Extra resources for Chemical Vapor Deposition of Tungsten and Tungsten Silicides for VLSI/ ULSI Applications
17 , Sherman18, Ikeda et al. 19, Builing et a1. 20, Nakanishi et a1. 21 , Smith et a1. 22, Raaijmakers et a1. 23] and was shown to provide appropriate adhesion. 4), thus eliminating completely any problems with (a). An alternative route to form TiN is the nitridation of sputtered Ti. This can easily be incorporated in a Ti based salicide process. An advantage is that a low and repeatable contact resistance can be obtained. WS~ would be a very acceptable candidate with regard to the in situ deposition possibility in the CVD-W reactor.
28. 4 Step Coverage A critical issue is the step coverage of the adhesion layer. This should be sufficient such that both the adhesion and the (chemical) barrier properties of the film are maintained. 2) and the minimum thickness where both adhesion and the barrier properties of the material are still present. 1 jLm, then the step coverage should be 50%. For sputtered TiW in a contact of a radius of one micron and an aspect ratio of one, 50% step coverage has been shown to be achievable [Ellwanger et a1.
20. Etch back scheme using a sacrificial layer, in this case polyimide. Situation after polyimide spin (a) and after polyimide/tungsten etch back (b). substantially reduced and moreover the roughness of the tungsten is now translated to the nitride layer. Following etch back, the nitride is removed selectively from the Si02, Wand TiW in hot phosphoric acid. The results were coplanar plugs and a very smooth oxide surface. The disadvantage of this procedure is that it prevents complete process integration in a cluster tool (see chapter VII).
Chemical Vapor Deposition of Tungsten and Tungsten Silicides for VLSI/ ULSI Applications by John E.J. Schmitz