Download e-book for iPad: Comparative Placentation: Structures, Functions and by Peter Wooding, Graham Burton

By Peter Wooding, Graham Burton

ISBN-10: 3540787968

ISBN-13: 9783540787969

Technology produces interesting puzzles: why is there one of these variety of placental buildings while different mammalian organs are so structurally uniform ? Why and the way did the several placental constructions evolve ? Comparative placental reports can facilitate the identity of the typical components in placental progress, differentiation and serve as and their relevance to attainable evolutionary pathways. Comparative Placentation is the one booklet offering up to date info illustrating the nice number of constitution yet uniform functionality of vertebrate placentas from fish to guy. this data is key for number of compatible versions to enquire specific useful difficulties of impaired or anomalous progress in human and animal placentation. the original selection of the simplest gentle and electron micrographs from the final thirtyfive years which accurately illustrate the structural diversity in each one taxon, make the ebook the main authoritative ebook during this box and an essential resource of knowledge for someone on reproductive body structure, anatomy and medication.

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5). This process continues throughout pregnancy (Fig. 2), contributing to an integral layer of the placenta and/or delivering to the maternal tissue the granules which contain placental lactogen among other constituents (Fig. 2). Further details and a discussion of the relevance of this system can be found in Chap. 6 on synepitheliochorial placentation below and Wooding (1992). Other examples of fetomaternal fusion may well occur in other placentas, but without unequivocal markers it is difficult to recognize and verify such unexpected events.

2003; Caluwaerts et al. 2005; Pijnenborg et al. 2006). For example, in mice the remodelling is mostly by interstitial cytotrophoblast and limited to the shallow decidual zone, but in rat and human both interstitial and endovascular remodelling is extended well into the myometrial spiral arteries in the second half of pregnancy. In Knock Out mice lacking uNK cells there is no remodelling and pregnancy is deleteriously affected (Croy et al. 2006), whereas in the potentially lethal human condition preeclampsia, characterised by little remodelling, an increased number of uNK cells has been reported.

Fetomaternal fusion in ruminants is a much more persistent phenomenon (Wooding 1992; Chap. 6). Binucleate cells develop in the predominantly uninucleate trophoblast just prior to implantation. They form 15–20% of this layer throughout gestation. e. with a full complement of their characteristic granules) they migrate out of the trophectoderm and fuse with the apposed uterine epithelium to produce a transient trinucleate cell(cow) or persistent fetomaternal syncytium(ewe) at the interface with the maternal endometrium (Figs.

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Comparative Placentation: Structures, Functions and Evolution by Peter Wooding, Graham Burton

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