By P. Morreale, K. Terplan
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Extra info for CRC Handbook of Modern Telecommunications
5 VoIP protocol components. switches, better routing and path-reservation protocols, and the continued addition of cheap bandwidth are all reasons why VoIP quality will continue to increase. In summary, there are a number of network options for VoIP. Which one best suits a particular need depends on a number of factors, primarily revolving around the level of expected quality. For those looking for a way to lower the cost of interoffice communications—an application where the “internal” aspect may allow slightly lower quality than that required for communications with customers—some of the lower-cost options like single-ISP VoIP networking may suffice.
Prepare the voice signal: In order to use the available bandwidth as efficiently as possible, the voice signal must go through a number of transformations before it is ready to be digitized. First, it must be cleaned up, so that it has as much noise and echo removed as possible. The techniques for doing this have been well established in the traditional telephony world for years, but the cooperation of the various systems and gateways through which voice may pass is essential. This means that calls traveling through an LEC on their way to the VoIP gateway may need to be treated differently than those coming directly from a PBX.
This variability occurs because two successive frames may experience different bit loss in their preambles. If the first packet experiences greater bit loss than the second, the gap will shrink as the repeater reconstructs the preamble and therefore introduces delay. If the second frame experiences greater bit loss, the gap will expand. 3 Carrier Sense Multiple Access A simple addition to the above scheme is to require each station to “listen before talking,” that is, require a station to sense the medium to determine if another station’s signal is present and defer transmission if this is the case.
CRC Handbook of Modern Telecommunications by P. Morreale, K. Terplan