By Victor J. Stenger
In a chain of outstanding advancements within the twentieth century and carrying on with into the twenty first, straightforward particle physicists, astronomers, and cosmologists have got rid of a lot of the secret that surrounds our figuring out of the actual universe. we have now mathematical types which are in line with all observational information, together with measurements of wonderful precision, and we've an exceptional figuring out of why these versions take the shape they do. even supposing present theories will be outmoded by means of higher, extra particular theories as technology keeps to boost, the good good fortune of up to date types makes it most likely that scientists are heading in the right direction. briefly, the cosmos is absolutely understandable. For these desirous about how physics explains the universe and impacts philosophy, Stenger's in-depth presentation, entire with an appendix of mathematical formulation, makes obtainable to put readers findings more often than not to be had in basic terms to expert scientists.
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Additional resources for The Comprehensible Cosmos: Where Do the Laws of Physics Come From?
By "color" in this context I mean the color of a light beam of identical photons. In fact, it corresponds to the energy of each photon in the beam. Measuring color gives us the photon energy, and also the magnitude of its momentum, which is simply equal to its energy divided by c. Our eye-brain system comprises such a device. While we usually describe color measurements in terms of the wavelength of an electromagnetic wave, a spatial concept, we have known since the early twentieth century that a focused electromagnetic wave is a 58 beam of photons that carries momentum and energy just like any other particle.
Since physics equations refer to quantities measured with meter sticks, clocks, and other instruments, measurements in a given reference frame are done with instruments that are fixed in that frame. The Galilean transformation relates the two sets of measurements. When the form of an equation is unchanged under a Galilean transformation, we say that it is Galilean invariant. The 63 principle of relativity requires that all the equations of physics be Galilean invariant. We see that this is a natural extension of point-of-view invariance to moving reference frames.
Obviously, it does not. The view from the top of the Rockies, near where I now live, is not at all like the view from Waikiki, near where I used to live. And the view from Waikiki, at least along the shoreline, is not the same now as it was when I first stood on that beach in 1963, when the tallest building was the five-story Royal Hawaiian hotel. On the astronomical scale, telescopic images provide a vast range of vistas and good evidence that those vistas have altered dramatically over time. Whether an earthly panorama of mountains and oceans or deepspace photographs of distant galaxies, observations indicate that the same physical models can be used as far out in space and as far back in time as our instruments take us.
The Comprehensible Cosmos: Where Do the Laws of Physics Come From? by Victor J. Stenger