By Maureen Warner-Lewis
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Additional resources for Central Africa in the Caribbean: Transcending Time, Transforming Cultures
Evidently, the river was so massive that it took on the property of a sea. 'Sea' was but one of the designations which served to denote the geographical space constituted by 'river' in a European language, for at its widest part, the Nzadi was called "mukisi (waasa) Nzadi or mukisi mamba (water), down towards the sea mwanza (lake)" (Laman 1968, 4:31). After all, nzadi or nzari meant 'great river' (Ravenstein 1901, 7, fn. 7). Both in connection with the Nzadi and the term kalunga, it is evident that in the Koongo language there was conceptual overlap between 'sea' and 'any large body of water'.
7). Both in connection with the Nzadi and the term kalunga, it is evident that in the Koongo language there was conceptual overlap between 'sea' and 'any large body of water'. Kalunga meant 'ocean' as well as any massive body of water like the Nzadi river. Essentially, in Koongo geo-cosmology it was a watery space which separated the realm of the living from that of the dead. In a literal dimension, the River Congo was not only very deep, but also presented as a vast body of water, even at a distance of ninety miles from the Atlantic (Monteiro 1875, 1:54).
Indef. JC JaKo Ko m. Mb MKo My N n. NE neg. pers. pi. Po pr. Bembe Cuban Koongo dialect emphatic English feminine footnote French French Creole genitive Guadeloupe Koongo Guyana Koongo imperative indefinite Jamaican Creole Jamaica Koongo Koongo masculine Mbundu Martinique Koongo Mayombe northern Koongo noun north-eastern Koongo negator person plural Portuguese pronoun xxxiii Abbreviations Pr2 Pr3 S SB sg. Sp subj. TE TKo Urn Vi W Y xxxiv second-person pronoun third-person pronoun Southern southern Bembe singular Spanish subject Trinidad English Trinidad Koongo Umbundu Vili Western Koongo Yoruba Svni>@tf < > ~ +  // ~ n g 8 0 derived from becomes/became variant of, alternating with followed by phonetic pronunciation phonemic representation nasalized vowel ny, as in "near:" ng, as in "sm^" mid front vowel, as in "set" as in "0r" XXXV Vrtk9tr*,ikic &M( Tyl®tr&ikic *3*r&ctic€ In this text, Central African words, whether confirmed or putative, are in bold type, though they may not be so rendered in quotations which did not demarcate these words by special type.
Central Africa in the Caribbean: Transcending Time, Transforming Cultures by Maureen Warner-Lewis