By Jim E. Riviere(auth.)
Now in a revised variation, Comparative Pharmacokinetics: ideas, strategies, and Applications provides the foundations and methods of comparative and veterinary pharmacokinetics in a close but sensible demeanour. built as a device for making sure that pharmacokinetics experiences are safely designed and properly interpreted, the publication presents whole assurance of the conceptual foundation of pharmacokinetics as used for quantifying organic strategies from the views of body structure and medicine. New chapters were additional on quantitative constitution permeability relationships and bioequivalence, and a few current chapters were considerably revised and extended to supply a present source for veterinary and comparative pharmacokinetics.Content:
Chapter 1 creation (pages 3–11):
Chapter 2 ideas of Drug flow within the physique (pages 13–25):
Chapter three Quantitative Structure–Permeability Relationships (pages 27–38): Xin?Rui Xia
Chapter four Absorption (pages 39–71):
Chapter five Distribution (pages 73–90): Jennifer Buur
Chapter 6 Renal removing (pages 91–111):
Chapter 7 Hepatic Biotransformation and Biliary Excretion (pages 113–141): Ronald Baynes
Chapter eight Compartmental types (pages 143–186):
Chapter nine Noncompartmental types (pages 187–206):
Chapter 10 Nonlinear versions (pages 207–223):
Chapter eleven Physiological types (pages 225–240): Teresa Leavens
Chapter 12 Dosage Regimens (pages 241–254):
Chapter thirteen Simultaneous Pharmacokinetic–Pharmacodynamic Modeling (pages 255–294): Pierre?Louis Toutain
Chapter 14 examine layout and information research (pages 295–313): Jason Chittenden
Chapter 15 Bioequivalence stories (pages 315–346): Marilyn Martinez
Chapter sixteen inhabitants Pharmacokinetic versions (pages 347–378): Jason Chittenden
Chapter 17 Dosage alterations in disorder States (pages 379–397): Jennifer Davis
Chapter 18 Interspecies Extrapolations (pages 399–412):
Chapter 19 Tissue Residues and Withdrawal instances (pages 413–424):
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Extra info for Comparative Pharmacokinetics: Principles, Techniques, and Applications, Second Edition
These physicochemical and biological factors govern the membrane permeability characteristics. Drugs may cross biological membranes by passive diffusion, facilitated passive diffusion, or active transport. As we have learned in Chapter 2, passive diffusion is a universal transport mechanism for all molecules, drugs or toxins alike, describing the substances moving/diffusing from a more concentrated environment to a less concentrated environment. 1 demonstrated that the driving force of passive transport is the concentration gradient (X1 – X2 or ΔX), allowing drugs to diffuse across a biological membrane from a compartment of high to low concentration.
1998. Skin permeability data: anomalous results. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 170:129–133. J. 2007. Pharmacometrics: The Science of Quantitative Pharmacology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. L. 1990. Physicochemical determinants of skin absorption. J. ), Principles of Route-to-Route Extrapolation for Risk Assessment. New York: Elsevier, pp. 93–127. Gramatica, P. 2007. Principles of QSAR models validation: internal and external. QSAR Combinatorial Science. 26:694–701. , and Papa, E. 2007. Statistical external validation and consensus modeling: a QSPR case study for Koc prediction.
To achieve the same dissolution rate in vitro and in vivo, saturation solubility in the test medium should be comparable with the in vivo situation. S. , 500-mL vessel volumes) and may not be appropriate for species with significantly smaller or larger stomachs or gastrointestinal fluids of different pH or viscosity. 1 Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) relating absorption as a function of permeability and solubility. Class 1 Rapid dissolution HIGH permeability HIGH solubility Class 2 HIGH permeability LOW solubility Class 3 LOW permeability HIGH solubility Class 4 LOW solubility LOW permeability It is the drug’s solubility, compared with rate and extent of absorption as reflected in a drug’s permeability through the gastrointestinal mucosa, that determines the ultimate ability of an oral drug to be given for systemic effects.
Comparative Pharmacokinetics: Principles, Techniques, and Applications, Second Edition by Jim E. Riviere(auth.)