By S. Robbert Gradstein, Jõrgen Homeier, Dirk Gansert, Jurgen Homeier
Tropical mountain forests are very wealthy in species and are typically regarded as hotspots of biodiversity. also they are of serious ecological value as resources of water and different atmosphere companies for thousands of individuals residing within the tropics. even if, those beneficial wooded area ecosystems are actually more and more being fragmented, diminished, and disturbed through human interventions. This e-book originated from a lecture sequence at the tropical mountain wooded area equipped through the G?ttingen Centre of Biodiversity and Ecology and held on the collage of G?ttingen, Germany, in the course of the summer time time period of 2007. the quantity provides a synthesis of present ecological examine in Germany at the tropical mountain wooded area, from an interdisciplinary standpoint.
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Extra info for The tropical mountain forest : patterns and processes in a biodiversity hotspot
7, semideciduous forest. 8, cerrado. 9, floodplain forest. 10, high elevation grassland. 11, Araucaria forest. 12, Podocarpus along the rivers. Quaternary history 27 In addition, anthropogenic impacts such as fires and deforestation have played a role. Depressions and floodplain areas in the highlands between 1400–1900 m are occupied by Araucaria forests. Atlantic rainforest occurs on moist slopes between 500 and 1500 m, cloud forest on the Atlantic-facing slopes between 1500–2000 m. "Islands" of cerrado vegetation (savanna, savanna forest, woodlands) occur in the Rio Paraiba valley (Hueck 1956).
It is assumed that as a consequence of the increased use 30 H. Behling of fire, for hunting purposes and by slash and burn cultivation in the drier valleys Figure 3. Percentage (above) and summary pollen diagram (below) of El Tiro in the south(x eastern Andes of Ecuador (from Niemann & Behling 2008). g. in the Loja area), fires spread into the mountains during drier phases of the year. There is evidence that fire influenced the vegetation composition of El Tiro as indicated by a decrease of common fern taxa including tree ferns.
At the beginning of the Holocene, cloud forest developed close to the Morro da Itapeva site, reflecting a probably warm and moist climate on seaward (eastfacing) slopes. Pollen data indicate the full development of Atlantic mountain rainforest. During the early and mid Holocene, the rare occurrence of Araucaria and Podocarpus and other associated taxa suggest that the climate on the highland plateau was drier than today. In the late Holocene after 3000 yr BP, frequencies of Araucaria and Podocarpus increased while Symplocos decreased, indicating a increase in highland moisture.
The tropical mountain forest : patterns and processes in a biodiversity hotspot by S. Robbert Gradstein, Jõrgen Homeier, Dirk Gansert, Jurgen Homeier