By Leonid B. Datsevich
This booklet analyzes traditional fixed-bed reactors comparable to trickle-bed, bubble (packed) column, and multitubular reactors with reference to procedure potency, layout and safeguard. it truly is proven that those reactors don't own any gigantic power for bettering commercial techniques. sleek thoughts in mass move, kinetics and approach layout are utilized to strategy improvement. In mild of the given research, new techniques to the advance of applied sciences in keeping with cutting edge ideas are elucidated. For the 1st time, first-hand wisdom approximately Two-Zone version, Oscillation thought, map of the power dissipation is gifted in full.
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Additional info for Conventional Three-Phase Fixed-Bed Technologies: Analysis and Critique
1, the process temperature should be confined to a comparatively narrow range preconditioned, on the one hand, by the appropriate reaction rate and, on the other hand, by the process selectivity and safety. It can only be achieved if the reaction heat is withdrawn from the reaction zone. , multitubular reactors or reactors with embedded heat exchangers). , hydrogenation of alkenes). This statement can be illustrated by uncomplicated evaluations (Appendix A) with respect to the reaction of 1-hexene hydrogenation to n-hexane taken as an example.
It is obvious that even if such an extremely complex reactor is designed, it will not be exploitable because of high investment and operating costs. It is necessary to point out that there are other crucial points related to the integration of heat exchangers and catalysts in one embodiment. Chapter 5 will elucidate some additional concerns over such a method pertaining to temperature gradients in the catalyst bed, fouling the heat transfer surfaces, flow uniformity, and temperature control. 2 Thermal and energy characteristics of some processes (possible by-reactions are not considered) Ng;recycle Erecycle f N Process DTad (K) DTpermit Ng;recycle (K) Ql;feed NB;feed Ql;feed (molg/m3l) (GJ/m3l) 1 Hydrogenation of acetone to isopropyl alcohol 2 Hydrogenation of nitroparaffins (C12-C14) to aminoparaffins 3 Hydrogenation of dinitrotoluene (mixture of isomers) to toluenediamine (mixture of isomers) 4 Hydrogenation of 3,4dichloronitrobenzene to 3,4-dichloroaniline 5 Hydrogenation of dinitrotriethylbenzene to diaminotriethylbenzene 6 Hydrogenation of nitrobenzene to aniline 7 Hydrogenation of 2,4dinitroaniline to triaminobenzene 8 Hydrogenation of furfural to furfuryl alcohol 9 Hydrogenation of furfural to tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol 10 Hydrogenation of 4-nitrosophenol to 4-aminophenol 11 Hydrotreating reactions (incl.
Let us underline once more that in the parts of the catalyst bed situated not far away from the liquid inlet, the concentration of the liquid reactant in the liquid and catalyst bulk is considerably high. That can cause some troubles attributed to the process safety. Namely, what can happen if this initial part of the catalyst bed with a high content of the liquid reactant gradually becomes to be isolated from the gas flow by depositions? The answer on this question is given in the analysis of runaways below (Sect.
Conventional Three-Phase Fixed-Bed Technologies: Analysis and Critique by Leonid B. Datsevich